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Table 1 Proportion of time spent in various behavioral categories during the different treatment periods for all treatment groups

From: Two methods of radio transmitter attachment and their effects on the behavior and energetics of captive long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) during winter

Treatment Period Resting Active Active behaviors
Maintenance Locomotion Foraging Others
Control Pre-attachment 0.20 ± 0.01 0.80 ± 0.01 0.14 ± 0.01 0.43 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
Control Attachment-1 0.23 ± 0.01 0.77 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.01 0.31 ± 0.01 0.23 ± 0.01 0.07 ± 0.01
Control Attachment-2 0.16 ± 0.01 0.84 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.01 0.40 ± 0.01 0.18 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.00
Control Post-attachment 0.20 ± 0.01 0.80 ± 0.01 0.15 ± 0.01 0.37 ± 0.01 0.15 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.01
Prong Pre-attachment 0.24 ± 0.01 0.76 ± 0.01 0.14 ± 0.01 0.38 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.01
Prong Attachment-1 0.29 ± 0.01 0.71 ± 0.01 0.27 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.01 0.22 ± 0.01 0.06 ± 0.01
Prong Attachment-2 0.20 ± 0.01 0.80 ± 0.01 0.31 ± 0.01 0.20 ± 0.01 0.20 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.01
Prong Post-attachment 0.24 ± 0.01 0.76 ± 0.01 0.22 ± 0.01 0.27 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.01 0.14 ± 0.01
Tesa Pre-attachment 0.26 ± 0.01 0.74 ± 0.01 0.14 ± 0.01 0.37 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01
Tesa Attachment-1 0.24 ± 0.01 0.76 ± 0.01 0.34 ± 0.01 0.17 ± 0.01 0.20 ± 0.01 0.05 ± 0.00
Tesa Attachment-2 0.22 ± 0.02 0.78 ± 0.02 0.21 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.02 0.26 ± 0.02 0.05 ± 0.01
Tesa Post-attachment 0.17 ± 0.01 0.83 ± 0.01 0.22 ± 0.01 0.36 ± 0.01 0.14 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.00
  1. Values shown are grand means (±SEM), which were established from individual bird means (N = 5 birds per treatment group). Values from the pre-attachment period served as baseline for comparisons. For a first comparison, the proportions for resting and active behavior are shown. Active behavior is then divided into its constituents: maintenance (preening, wing flapping, stretching, shaking, and bathing), locomotion (walking, running, flying, swimming, and diving), foraging (feeding and drinking), and others (alerted and social behaviors)