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Table 2 Examples of the range of methods used to externally attach electronic tags to fish, several of which are suited to the specific morphology or taxa involved

From: The use of external electronic tags on fish: an evaluation of tag retention and tagging effects

Method Example taxon Reference
Fishing hook at base of dorsal fin attached by nylon tether to transmitter Roccus chrysops white bass [13]
Small fishing hook at base of dorsal fin, attached by stiff nylon tether to PIT tag (highly temporary, minimal handling) Alosa sapidissima American shad [97]
Dorsal fin attachment using miniature alligator clip Oncorhynchus clarki cutthroat trout [14]
Three nylon T-bar tags anchored on pterygiphores used to mount an H-shaped rubber saddle housing the transmitter Paranotothenia angustata black cod [121]
Pop-up satellite transmitter on monofilament tether with medical grade nylon dart harpoon attached at base of dorsal fin (other studies have used stainless steel/titanium darts) Thunnus thynnus bluefin tuna [123]
Steel dart attached to transmitter deployed by pneumatic gun; dart aimed at lateral surface of fish, posterior to second dorsal fin (no internal organs) Latimeria chalumnae coelacanth [59]
Archival tag attached to a barbed nylon pin passed through pre-punched hole in dorsal fin and secured by female half of cattle ear tag Galeorhinus galeus school shark [101]
Pull tie covered in soft tubing attached around caudal peduncle, tag attached to main pull tie Sciaenops ocellata red drum [15]
Absorbable suture attachment through caudal peduncle, tag on one side, soft plate on other Esox lucius northern pike [24]
Ventral attachment at base of anal fin Seriola quinqueradiata yellowtail [16]
Ventral attachment in mid-section of abdomen Gadus morhua Atlantic cod [114]
Pannier (dorsal saddle) attachment with tag and battery components on either side of the dorsal fin Salmo trutta brown trout [46]
Side mount attachment on one side of dorsal musculature, below dorsal fin, with a flexible backing plate on the other side, wire/monofilament through muscle section Oncorhynchus mykiss rainbow trout [64]
Side mount attachment with neoprene pad Leuciscus leuciscus dace [77]
Side mount attachment with soft, spacing mounds Cyprinus carpio Common carp [105]
Anterior-dorsal soft saddle attached superficially Esox lucius northern pike [95]
Posterior dorso-lateral soft saddle harness attached through musculature Esox lucius northern pike [48]
Flattened tag attached to inside of operculum using two lengths of monofilament, fastened outside with washer and crimp Cebidichthys violaceus [120]
Tag attached to bony appendages on back of fish with polyfilament Dacron tether Phycodurus eques Leafy seadragon [124]