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Table 2 Examples of the range of methods used to externally attach electronic tags to fish, several of which are suited to the specific morphology or taxa involved

From: The use of external electronic tags on fish: an evaluation of tag retention and tagging effects

Method Example taxon Reference
Fishing hook at base of dorsal fin attached by nylon tether to transmitter Roccus chrysops
white bass
[13]
Small fishing hook at base of dorsal fin, attached by stiff nylon tether to PIT tag (highly temporary, minimal handling) Alosa sapidissima
American shad
[97]
Dorsal fin attachment using miniature alligator clip Oncorhynchus clarki
cutthroat trout
[14]
Three nylon T-bar tags anchored on pterygiphores used to mount an H-shaped rubber saddle housing the transmitter Paranotothenia angustata
black cod
[121]
Pop-up satellite transmitter on monofilament tether with medical grade nylon dart harpoon attached at base of dorsal fin (other studies have used stainless steel/titanium darts) Thunnus thynnus
bluefin tuna
[123]
Steel dart attached to transmitter deployed by pneumatic gun; dart aimed at lateral surface of fish, posterior to second dorsal fin (no internal organs) Latimeria chalumnae
coelacanth
[59]
Archival tag attached to a barbed nylon pin passed through pre-punched hole in dorsal fin and secured by female half of cattle ear tag Galeorhinus galeus
school shark
[101]
Pull tie covered in soft tubing attached around caudal peduncle, tag attached to main pull tie Sciaenops ocellata
red drum
[15]
Absorbable suture attachment through caudal peduncle, tag on one side, soft plate on other Esox lucius
northern pike
[24]
Ventral attachment at base of anal fin Seriola quinqueradiata yellowtail [16]
Ventral attachment in mid-section of abdomen Gadus morhua
Atlantic cod
[114]
Pannier (dorsal saddle) attachment with tag and battery components on either side of the dorsal fin Salmo trutta
brown trout
[46]
Side mount attachment on one side of dorsal musculature, below dorsal fin, with a flexible backing plate on the other side, wire/monofilament through muscle section Oncorhynchus mykiss
rainbow trout
[64]
Side mount attachment with neoprene pad Leuciscus leuciscus
dace
[77]
Side mount attachment with soft, spacing mounds Cyprinus carpio
Common carp
[105]
Anterior-dorsal soft saddle attached superficially Esox lucius
northern pike
[95]
Posterior dorso-lateral soft saddle harness attached through musculature Esox lucius
northern pike
[48]
Flattened tag attached to inside of operculum using two lengths of monofilament, fastened outside with washer and crimp Cebidichthys violaceus [120]
Tag attached to bony appendages on back of fish with polyfilament Dacron tether Phycodurus eques
Leafy seadragon
[124]