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Table 2 Examples of the range of methods used to externally attach electronic tags to fish, several of which are suited to the specific morphology or taxa involved

From: The use of external electronic tags on fish: an evaluation of tag retention and tagging effects

Method Example taxon Reference
Fishing hook at base of dorsal fin attached by nylon tether to transmitter Roccus chrysops
white bass
Small fishing hook at base of dorsal fin, attached by stiff nylon tether to PIT tag (highly temporary, minimal handling) Alosa sapidissima
American shad
Dorsal fin attachment using miniature alligator clip Oncorhynchus clarki
cutthroat trout
Three nylon T-bar tags anchored on pterygiphores used to mount an H-shaped rubber saddle housing the transmitter Paranotothenia angustata
black cod
Pop-up satellite transmitter on monofilament tether with medical grade nylon dart harpoon attached at base of dorsal fin (other studies have used stainless steel/titanium darts) Thunnus thynnus
bluefin tuna
Steel dart attached to transmitter deployed by pneumatic gun; dart aimed at lateral surface of fish, posterior to second dorsal fin (no internal organs) Latimeria chalumnae
Archival tag attached to a barbed nylon pin passed through pre-punched hole in dorsal fin and secured by female half of cattle ear tag Galeorhinus galeus
school shark
Pull tie covered in soft tubing attached around caudal peduncle, tag attached to main pull tie Sciaenops ocellata
red drum
Absorbable suture attachment through caudal peduncle, tag on one side, soft plate on other Esox lucius
northern pike
Ventral attachment at base of anal fin Seriola quinqueradiata yellowtail [16]
Ventral attachment in mid-section of abdomen Gadus morhua
Atlantic cod
Pannier (dorsal saddle) attachment with tag and battery components on either side of the dorsal fin Salmo trutta
brown trout
Side mount attachment on one side of dorsal musculature, below dorsal fin, with a flexible backing plate on the other side, wire/monofilament through muscle section Oncorhynchus mykiss
rainbow trout
Side mount attachment with neoprene pad Leuciscus leuciscus
Side mount attachment with soft, spacing mounds Cyprinus carpio
Common carp
Anterior-dorsal soft saddle attached superficially Esox lucius
northern pike
Posterior dorso-lateral soft saddle harness attached through musculature Esox lucius
northern pike
Flattened tag attached to inside of operculum using two lengths of monofilament, fastened outside with washer and crimp Cebidichthys violaceus [120]
Tag attached to bony appendages on back of fish with polyfilament Dacron tether Phycodurus eques
Leafy seadragon