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Fig. 2 | Animal Biotelemetry

Fig. 2

From: Toward a national animal telemetry network for aquatic observations in the United States

Fig. 2

Animal telemetry tags come in a variety of shapes and sizes, offering different functionalities and deployment options, here are a few examples. a Sea Mammal Research Unit Satellite Relay Data Logger, which records summaries of diving behavior and environmental data (temperature, salinity, fluorescence depending on the configuration) and can transmit a subset of those via satellite. Usually deployed on larger animals that surface regularly. b Vemco acoustic pinger (V9 model pictured) transmit unique ID codes to underwater receivers when a tagged animal passed within range (typically ranging 100–2000 m) of a receiver. Popular for coarse-scale tracking over large areas or fine-scale ‘positional’ tracking over small areas in both marine and freshwater environments. Optional sensors provide temperature, depth, or acceleration. Tags can operate for weeks to years depending on size and programming options. c Wildlife Computers satellite position only tag (SPOT), initial versions of this tag provided locations only which were calculated by triangulation of transmissions to satellites. More recent versions can also collect and transmit behavioral and temperature data. Available in a variety of physical configurations so can be deployed on many different species (from fish to whales and sea lions). d Wildlife Computers Pop-up Archival Tag (PAT). This tag records behavioral and environmental data as long as a corrodible link keeps it attached to the animal. When that breaks it floats to the surface and for the next ~10 days it transmits as much of the archived data as it possible. Most frequently used on larger fish species, e.g., sharks and tuna e Lotek archival tag, which records depth, temperature and on this version the long stalk is a light level sensor. The tag must be recovered to get the data. Most frequently used in harvested fish with rewards offered for recovery through commercial fisheries

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