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Table 2 Tag volumes and mass relative to body mass from select recent studies in four aquatic mammal species using intra-abdominal dual FITs

From: Best practice recommendations for the use of fully implanted telemetry devices in pinnipeds

Species Tags n ml/kg % Body mass Effect testing References
California sea lion LHX 2 2.2 (3.1) 0.13 (0.18) 1,2,5,6 [43]
California sea lion LHX + LHX 2 2.4 (2.9) 0.14 (0.17) 1,2,5,6 [43]
Steller sea lion LHX 2 1.8 (1.9) 0.10 (0.11) 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 [43, 46, 49, 57, 60, 63, 65]
Steller sea lion LHX + LHX 34 3.1 (5.5) 0.18 (0.32) 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10 [43, 46, 49, 57, 59,60,61,62,63,64,65]
Steller sea lion LHX + LHX2 9 2.8 (3.8) 0.17 (0.23) 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 [49, 59,60,61,62,63,64,65]
Harbor seal (pup) LHX2 3 6.0 (6.3) 0.41 (0.43) 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10 [53]
Harbor seal LHX2 + LHX2 10 2.5 (3.6) 0.17 (0.24) 6,7,8,9,10 [Horning et al. unpubl. data]
Sea otter VHF + TDR 31 5.0 (7.1) 0.68 (0.97) n/a [40, 47]
  1. For applications with multiple internal tags, volumes and masses are summed. n refers to sample sizes in referenced studies. Mean values are listed with maximum ratios in parentheses, and sample size is indicated. Effect testing conducted in these studies—some continuing—is indicated with references to publications
  2. Effect testing 1. captive postop monitoring ≥6 weeks, mass (gain), appetence, 2. postoperative transmitted temperatures, 3. CBC and differential, 4. acute and chronic inflammatory responses measures, 5. captive behavior, 6. postrelease movement, 7. postrelease behavior, 8. postrelease survival, 9. postrelease reproduction, 10. in progress/continuing