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Fig. 6 | Animal Biotelemetry

Fig. 6

From: Passive kHz lidar for the quantification of insect activity and dispersal

Fig. 6

Examples of insect observation time series and power spectra, from which the ranging parameters τ and Δt, the wing-beat frequency f0, as well as other observation parameters are extracted. Top: insect signal with a waveform matching close-range simulation (see Fig. 1d). The insect appears in all four detector segments, as expected due to their FOV overlapping at close range, and insertion into Eq. 1 yields a predicted range \(\hat{r}\) of 21 m. Middle: signal from an insect entering the FOV with an inclination, appearing in the upper, lower and western detector segments. The waveform matches mid-range simulation, and insertion into Eq. 1 yields a predicted range \(\hat{r}\) of 81 m. Bottom: insect signal with a waveform matching far-range simulation, appearing in the eastern, western, and upper detector segments. Insertion into Eq. 1 yields a predicted range \(\hat{r}\) of 120 m. The wing-beat frequency f0 is marked in the power spectrum in all three cases, and can be used for target classification

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