Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of the device generations and select findings

From: Development and utilization of implantable cardiac monitors in free-ranging American black and Eurasian brown bears: system evolution and lessons learned

Device Features Species/usage Findings
GEN 1 80 cc
104 h recording capacity
Programmable to allow duty cycling of recording intervals
Ursus americanus (Colorado and Wyoming, USA)
n = 6 devices in 6 bears
Longest asystole = 13.3 s
Extreme RSA identified
Avg HR increased when electromyograms (EMGs) were present
Longest duration of data collection = 68 days (HR Avg = 13.5 ± 3.8 bpm)
No significant changes in the QRS or QT intervals during hibernation
Rate dependence of QT interval lost during hibernation
Extreme foreign body response
GEN 2 9 cc
3-year battery life
Records daytime HR, nighttime HR, activity, and episodes with ECGs
Ursus americanus (Minnesota, USA)
n = 65 devices in 39 bears
Longest asystole = 14.4 s
Maximum HR = 261 bpm (bear shot by hunter)
Respiratory rate increased as investigators approached the den, serving to increase the average HR
Anesthesia eradicated the RSA
   Ursus arctos (Sweden)
n = 35 devices in 33 bears
Maximum HR = 240 bpm (07 Oct 13 and 19 Oct 13; 2-year-old female)
Longest asystole = 15.8 s (26-Feb-2013; 2-year-old female)
GEN 2 with BearWare GEN 2 features with
Avg HR every 2 min
Activity at 15-min intervals
ECGs for the 10 extremes for tachycardias and asystoles
Ursus americanus (Minnesota, USA)
n = 69 devices in 42 bears
Longest asystole = 33.8 s (03-Mar-2015; 4-year-old female)
Maximum HR = 261 bpm (02-Sep-2010; adult female)
   Ursus arctos (Sweden)
n = 71 devices in 56 bears
Longest asystole = 39.4 s (03-Nov-2016; 3 1/2-year-old female)
Maximum HR = 222 bpm (07-May-2014; 2-year-old female)
GEN 3 with Telemetry Stations GEN 2 features with
1.2 cc
3-year battery life
Wireless capability
Ursus americanus (Minnesota, USA)
n = 29 devices in 21 bears with 28 telemetry stations deployed
Demonstrated feasibility of remote web-based monitoring of bears in the wild
Cessation of long sinus pauses during parturition
Subcutaneous impedance decreased during hibernation
GEN 3 with B-Ware GEN 3 and BearWare features with
Rejects asystoles > 60 s and tachycardias > 275 bpm
Ursus americanus (Minnesota, USA)
n = 10 devices in 10 bears
Results pending
  1. Avg average, HR heart rate, RSA respiratory sinus arrhythmia, bpm beats per minute, ± standard deviation