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Fig. 3 | Animal Biotelemetry

Fig. 3

From: Testing cellular phone-enhanced GPS tracking technology for urban carnivores

Fig. 3

Maps depicting KDE and AKDE home range estimates contrasting the most representative individuals F1 and M2. The top two panels depict the a KDE range and; b AKDE 95% area estimates ± 95% CIs for raccoon F1. F1’s short range crossing time (1.8 h), and long tracking duration (22.6 days) resulted in an effective sample size of 303.6, and both KDE and AKDE produced well-resolved ranges. The bottom two panels depict the c KDE range and; d AKDE 95% area estimates ± 95% CIs for raccoon M2. M2’s comparatively longer range crossing time (40.2 h), and shorter tracking duration (19.7 days) resulted in fewer range crossing events being observed, and an effective sample size of only 11.8. Here KDE underestimated the home range area by more than threefold, whereas AKDE produced a larger, and less biased range estimate

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