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Table 2 Model averaged parameter estimates and 95% confidence intervals for prediction of kill sites from clusters of black bear, bobcats, coyotes, and wolves

From: Identification of carnivore kill sites is improved by verified accelerometer data

Species Model term Estimate 2.5% 97.5% z-value P
Black Bear Intercept − 4.01 − 4.90 − 3.12 8.84 0.00
MACT 0.49 − 0.20 1.18 1.39 0.16
MACT2 − 0.03 − 0.21 0.14 0.36 0.72
SACT 0.13 − 0.41 0.68 0.48 0.64
SACT2 0.16 − 0.42 0.74 0.53 0.60
LOCS 0.30 − 0.19 0.78 1.20 0.23
DAYS − 0.52 − 1.75 0.71 0.83 0.41
TOD(N) − 0.36 − 1.52 0.80 0.61 0.54
Bobcat Intercept − 1.20 − 1.84 − 0.55 3.64 0.00
LOCS 0.76 0.36 1.15 3.75 0.00
DAYS − 0.35 − 1.00 0.30 1.05 0.29
TOD(N) 0.50 − 0.21 1.22 1.38 0.17
MACT 1.22 0.48 1.96 3.22 0.00
MACT2 − 0.87 − 1.60 − 0.15 2.36 0.02
SACT 0.17 − 0.16 0.49 1.02 0.31
SACT2 − 0.08 − 0.44 0.27 0.46 0.64
PATCH 0.26 − 0.15 0.68 1.26 0.21
HYDRO 0.22 − 0.14 0.57 1.19 0.24
EDGE 0.20 − 0.15 0.55 1.10 0.27
SECRD − 0.19 − 0.52 0.15 1.09 0.27
Coyote Intercept − 2.22 − 2.79 − 1.65 7.64 0.00
MACT 0.97 0.37 1.57 3.17 0.00
MACT2 − 0.16 − 0.36 0.05 1.51 0.13
SACT 0.13 − 0.30 0.56 0.58 0.56
SACT2 − 0.39 − 0.85 0.07 1.65 0.10
PATCH − 0.38 − 1.56 0.80 0.64 0.52
HYDRO 0.15 − 0.24 0.53 0.75 0.46
EDGE − 0.36 − 1.03 0.31 1.05 0.29
ROAD 0.68 0.11 1.25 2.34 0.02
Wolf Intercept − 2.16 − 2.72 − 1.60 7.51 0.00
LOCS 0.56 0.21 0.91 3.15 0.00
DAYS − 0.46 − 1.04 0.13 1.53 0.13
TOD(N) 0.16 − 0.59 0.91 0.41 0.68
MACT 1.01 0.47 1.55 3.69 0.00
MACT2 − 0.15 − 0.30 − 0.01 2.07 0.04
SACT − 0.25 − 0.57 0.07 1.55 0.12
SACT2 − 0.02 − 0.38 0.34 0.09 0.93
PATCH 0.09 − 0.50 0.67 0.29 0.77
HYDRO 0.34 0.03 0.65 2.14 0.03
EDGE − 0.26 − 0.84 0.31 0.90 0.37
ROAD 0.22 − 0.20 0.64 1.02 0.31
  1. Parameters include mean activity (MACT), sum of activity (SACT), number of global positioning system locations (LOCS), number of days spent at the cluster (DAYS), time of day the cluster was initiated (TOD), land cover patch size the cluster was within (PATCH), distance to nearest hydrologic feature from cluster center (HYDRO), distance to nearest land cover edge from cluster center (EDGE), and distance to nearest road from cluster center (ROAD). Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA, 2013–2015