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Table 1 Accelerometer-derived metrics of activity and/or behaviour for marine animals, including the targeted activity or behavior, equipment used, and example study or studies using the metric

From: A scalable, satellite-transmitted data product for monitoring high-activity events in mobile aquatic animals

Metric Identification Target activity Equipment Frequency/timespan Species Ref
Calculated before data transmission (no device retrieval needed)
PrCA (prey catch attempt) Per-second change in acceleration greater than a (running average + threshold) value Dive-foraging attempts via rapid head and body movements Relay satellite tag One dive sampled and summarized every 2.25 h at 16 Hz for up to 338 days Wedell (Leptonychotes weddellii)41 and southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonine)31 [28, 43]
KD (knockdown event) Abrupt switch of PSAT from vertical to horizontal Beginning of a swimming bout, mortality PSAT 2-h summary of 1-Hz data/60 days Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) [29, 44]
Tilt (g) Degree of PSAT tilt, from vertical to horizontal via z-axis Swimming behavior (sustained or saltatory), mortality PSAT 2-h summary of 1-Hz data/60 days Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) [29, 44]
ATS (activity time-series) Per-second instances of mobility exceeding a dynamic high activity threshold Relative high activity PSAT 75-s and 1-h summaries of 1-Hz data/30 days Sandbar sharks (Carcharhinus plumbeus) [This study]
G Vectorized acceleration along x, y, and z-axes Diurnal activity PSAT 3-min summaries of 1.5625-Hz data Pacific sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) [34]
Calculated before device retrieval
Burst acceleration events Exceeds manually defined acceleration threshold Escape behaviors Accelerometer logger 500 Hz/18–45 h Red seabream (Pagrus major) and yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) [45]
Calculated after device retrieval
Prey engulfment Differential of acceleration > 1000 m/s Feeding (raptorial and suction) Accelerometer logger 200 and 333 Hz/timespan NA Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) [19]
ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration) (Absolute acceleration along x, y, and z-axes) – (static acceleration due to gravity) Energy expenditure (as acceleration around a center of mass) Accelerometer logger Moderate-to-high frequency (> 10 Hz) NA [46]
  1. ATS is included for reference