Skip to main content

Table 1 Features of cost, accuracy and data storage of different technologies used to infer ovine heat stress

From: Technologies for the automated collection of heat stress data in sheep

Technology Model/type Cost per unit (AUD) Sensor accuracy Data collection Ovine studies
Temperature loggers (thermistors/thermocouples) Thermochron iButton (OnSolution, Maxim International) 98 + software and deployment strategy  ± 0.5 ℃ Data storage, up to 6 months of data in memory, 1–2 year battery life [15, 51, 53, 85, 124]
DST Micro loggers (StarOddi) 475 + communication box (545), Mercury software (370) + deployment strategy  ± 0.06 ℃
Automated tympanic probes FeverTags®, Cow Manager, DoggTag, SenseTag, TekVet 25–40  ± 0.1 ℃ Data storage,  > 2 year battery life [124]
Reticulorumen boluses Smartstock, USA 70 + station (960) and receiver (1790)  ± 0.2 ℃ Wireless data transmission up to 200 m [66, 69,70,71, 125, 126]
Infrared Thermography IRT Thermometer; VTTS-1000 Tympanic Scanner Exergen Corporation® 100 2 ℃ or 0.5% Manual thermometry [96, 127]
IRT Camera 1000–4300  < 0.1 ℃ ± 2% Contactless, > 3000 m range [25, 85,86,87, 128,129,130]
Implantable devices LifeChip® microchips with BIO-THERM® sensor 20–50  ± 0.5 ℃ Data storage activated through handheld receiver [15, 66, 86]
GPS collars UNETracker, WildTrax, EarTrax-AG 2000 5–10 m Data storage [26, 115,116,117,118]
Accelerometers HOBO Pendant G data loggers 195 Up to 99% Data storage & wireless transmission [108, 112, 117, 131]
ActiGraphs 290 [109]