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Table 2 Reported influence of a thermocline on detectability. Gradient, depth, and respective placement of transmitters and receivers across the thermocline were reported or calculated from reference figures

From: Influence of thermal stratification and storms on acoustic telemetry detection efficiency: a year-long test in the US Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight

Reference System Thermocline
Gradient (°C/m) Depth (m) Transmitter–receiver side Effect on detectability
Present study Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight, USA 1–2 8–15 Same (below)  + 
Oliver et al. [32] Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight, USA   15–20 Mix
Jossart et al. [30] Caribbean, USVI 0.2 30–40 Within
Singh et al. [33] Kromme Bay, South Africa 1 12–14 Mix
Huveneers et al. [29] New South Wales, Australia 0.44  > 20 Mix
Cagua et al. [34] Red Sea, Saudi Arabia  > 0.04  < 37 Mix
Gjelland and Hedger [31] Lake Skrukkebukta, Norway   10–21 Opposite
Klinard et al. [2] Lake Ontario  > 0.08 11 Mix