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Table 3 GAMM with the square root of the daily cumulative distance included as dependent variable, interaction between tag attachment and group as fixed term and individual identity as random intercept

From: Wing tags severely impair movement in African Cape Vultures

Coeff Est SE t p
Intercept 7.79 0.16 49.42 ***
Patagial att − 0.65 0.22 − 2.97 **
Captive group − 0.09 0.21 − 0.44 NS
Patagial:Captive 0.19 0.27 0.70 NS
Smooth terms Edf Ref. df F p
Tracking duration 5.34 5.34 6.37 ***
N. Loc 7.28 7.28 3568.63 ***
Date 5.45 8.00 3.76 ***
Random effects Intercept Std. Dev N. Groups   
Individuals 0.37 27   
N. Observations 2848   
Adjusted R 0.92   
  1. Number of days since deployment, number of locations and day of the year were included as smooth terms. The model was fitted with the restricted maximum likelihood using the gaussian family
  2. NS p\(\ge\)0.05; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001