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Table 1 Examples of the use of HRV or HR measurement in animals

From: Alternative measurement systems for recording cardiac activity in animals: a pilot study

Author, source Animal Use Results
Rushen et al. [24] Cattle Impact of the environment and human presence on the quantity of produced milk Higher HR and lower milk production in isolate cows
Rushen et al. [25] Cattle Impact of human behaviour in presence of cows on the quantity of produced milk Higher HR and lower milk production, if the cows were in the presence of a person who behaved aversively
Kovacs et al. [37] Cattle Assessment of health (lameness) Lower HR and higher HRV in cows with lameness
Stubsjøen et al. [38] Sheep Assessment of health (lameness) Higher HRV in sheep with lameness
Mesangeau et al. [44] Miniature pigs Model for early detection of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy Higher resting HR and lower HRV in pigs with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy
Voss et al. [45] Pigs Model for sudden infant death syndrome Lower HRV in pigs during external warming
Guidi et al. [19] Horse Estimation of the human–horse interaction for equine assisted therapy Quantitative measure of the human-horse interaction using HRV is viable
Perkins et al. [40] Horse Assessment of health (grass sickness) Lower HRV in horses with grass sickness
Rietmann et al. [41] Horse Assessment of pain after short-term and long-term treatment of laminitis Decrease of high-frequency component of HRV is attributable to an increase in pain
Kuwahara et al. [42] Horse Assessment of health (atrial fibrillation) Higher low-frequency and high-frequency power of HRV in horses with atrial fibrillation
McConachie et al. [43] Horse Assessment of health (acute gastrointestinal disease) Lower HRV in horses with acute gastrointestinal disease
Janczarek et al. [47] Horse Impact on racing performance Higher HRV, better racing results
Munsters et al. [49] Horse Impact of police training on welfare No significant changes in HR and HRV were detected, training is not stressful for both experienced and inexperienced horses
Voss et al. [48] Horse Assessment o
f degree of load during training
Rise of HR and decrease of HRV was observed with increasing burden level
König von Borstel et al. [30] Horse Temperament test HR and HRV were lowest when the horses were led and/or no human was present
Nagel et al. [39] Horse Monitoring progress of delivery Higher mother’s HR immediately before delivery, higher HRV only during delivery