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Table 2 Summary of ECG electrode placement for the measurement of cardiac activity in animals

From: Alternative measurement systems for recording cardiac activity in animals: a pilot study

Author, source Animal Electrode placement system Number of electrodes ECG electrode placement
Hopster et al. [13] Cattle 3 Electrodes placed on the left front leg, left part of the abdomen, and left hind leg
Konold et al. [95] Cattle Base-apex 3 Negative electrode: left scapula, positive electrode: left intercostal space ground, electrode: left paralumbar fossa
Depres et al. [50] Cattle 2 Electrodes placed along the sternum and on the right scapula
Tajik et al. [96] Sheep Base-apex 3 The negative electrode: left side of the neck on the jugular furrow, positive electrode: fifth intercostal space, ground electrode: away from the other two electrodes
Guidi et al. [19]
Lanata et al. [83]
Lanata et al. [84]
Horse Modified base-apex 2 Electrodes integrated into an elastic band and placed in the area behind the left front leg
Lenoir et al. [57]
Zucca et al. [88]
Horse 5 The positive electrode: left side of the thorax behind the olecranon, negative electrode: left side of the chest behind the withers, ground electrode: above the left mid-thorax between these electrodes
Costa et al. [97] Horse Dubois method 4 Measuring electrodes: right scapula, left scapula, region of the sternum (over the xiphoid); ground electrode: left front leg