Study design for conducted range tests. (a) Cumberland Sound, Nunavut, Canada - fixed transmitter mooring to far left, consisting of three transmitter types (V16, V13, and V9), with fixed receiver moorings at increasing distance intervals. Depth from surface to substrate is approximately 30 m. (b) Lake Charlotte, Nova Scotia, Canada - fixed receiver mooring to the left. Vessel with test V16 transmitter lowered over the side of the vessel to a depth of 2.5 to 3 m. The vessel was moved to set distances from the receiver mooring and held at increasing distance intervals for 180 s at each. Depth from surface to substrate is approximately 40 m. (c) Jupiter, Florida, USA - as if viewed from directly above - three fixed receiver mooring to the left and three fixed V16 transmitter moorings providing seven distance intervals. Depth from surface to substrate is approximately 20 m. Diagrams are not to scale.