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Table 2 Oxygen consumption rates (\( s\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \)) (ml min−1 kg−1) of long-tailed ducks during respirometry trials

From: Two methods of radio transmitter attachment and their effects on the behavior and energetics of captive long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) during winter

Bird Sex/age (years) Treatment M b (g) Resting \( s\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \) (ml min−1 kg−1) Preening
Pre-attachment Attachment-1 Attachment-2 \( s\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \) (ml min−1 kg−1) Factorial increase
019 f/1.4 Control 644 ± 6 34.40 ± 2.66 30.29 ± 0.05 31.23 ± 1.18   
1082 J m/2.4 Control 691 ± 4 27.01 ± 0.31 26.49 ± 0.27 27.10 ± 0.22   
1084 J m/2.4 Control 760 ± 12 29.28 ± 1.66 31.26 ± 1.03 31.77 ± 0.70   
7269 J f/0.4 Control 578 ± 4 31.83 ± 0.17 32.68 ± 1.72 30.59 ± 1.91   
773 J f/3.4 Control 588 ± 4 28.73 ± 1.17 30.10 32.99 ± 0.46   
Grand mean    652 ± 34 30.25 ± 1.29 30.17 ± 1.03 30.73 ± 0.99   
1083 J m/2.4 Prong 684 ± 6 23.65 ± 0.25 26.20 ± 0.70 25.96 ± 0.48 48.32 2.04
4584 J f/1.4 Prong 590 ± 21 28.62 ± 1.95 32.23   54.21 ± 1.27 1.89
4585 J m/1.4 Prong 675 ± 13 23.03 ± 0.11 23.49 ± 0.33 32.75 ± 0.85 43.53 ± 4.79 1.89
7230 J m/2.4 Prong 687 ± 7 25.61 ± 1.41 26.16 ± 0.72 28.46 ± 0.80 39.28 ± 5.99 1.53
7268 J f/0.4 Prong 561 ± 2 30.71 ± 3.18     
Grand mean    639 ± 27 26.32 ± 1.47 27.02 ± 1.85 29.06 ± 1.98 46.33 ± 3.21 1.84 ± 0.11
002 m/1.4 Tesa 775 ± 9 26.84 ± 2.07 26.45 ± 2.30 29.26 ± 0.58 39.88 1.49
003 m/1.4 Tesa 787 ± 11 27.51 28.49 31.30 ± 0.68 44.56 ± 2.31 1.62
016 m/1.4 Tesa 729 ± 12 31.97 ± 2.11 34.53 ± 0.81 30.82 ± 2.33 51.21 ± 1.91 1.60
14198 J f/0.4 Tesa 514 ± 4 34.41 34.31 34.28 ± 2.42 52.31 1.52
586 J f/4.4 Tesa 586 ± 3 24.41 30.81 ± 0.11 36.27 ± 2.60   
Grand mean    678 ± 54 29.03 ± 1.82 30.92 ± 1.59 32.39 ± 1.27 46.99 ± 2.92 1.56 ± 0.03
  1. Values are means ± SEM which, in case of resting \( s\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \), were averaged from two trials conducted per bird during each treatment period. M b values were averaged from measurements taken before each trial over the course of the study period. Grand means were established from individual bird means. The different treatment groups and treatment periods are indicated. Shown also are the \( s\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \) values for ducks when preening during trials, which occurred in all but one duck after transmitter attachment (Prong and Tesa birds only). The factorial increase indicates how much \( s\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \) during preening was increased over the resting situation before transmitter attachment (pre-attachment)