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Table 1 Review of proximity logger deployments

From: Understanding and geo-referencing animal contacts: proximity sensor networks integrated with GPS-based telemetry

Study Logger brand or project name Logger weight (g) Target species Mobile loggers Static loggers Target detection range (m)a Radio frequency Geo-referencing of encounters Remote data download Calibration scenario Power consumption analysis
[2] Zebranet Not reported Zebra (Equus burchellii) Yes (only for data retrieving) Yes (base stations ‘daily drive’) Not reported 900 MHz No
A GPS module is embedded in the logger to track zebra movements
Yes
Via radio between mobile loggers and base stations
Not reported Yes
[3] Sirtrack Ltd. 30 Common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) Yes No 0.3–0.5 160 MHz No No (recapture necessary) Tests on captive Possums [4] No
[5] Sirtrack Ltd. 125 Racoon (Procyon lotor) Yes No 1–1.5 916.5 MHz No No (recapture necessary) Laboratory test to assess (1) threshold contact distance in dependence of antenna orientation; (2) contact duration and robustness
Field tests on raccoons to evaluate (1) inter-logger distance variation pre- and post-deployment; (2) contacts reciprocity between loggers
Yes
[6] Sirtrack Ltd. 150 (badger); not reported the weight of the cattle logger Eurasian badger (Meles meles)/domestic cattle (Bos taurus) Yes No 1.5–2.5 916.5 MHz No No (recapture necessary) Laboratory test to assess threshold contact distance No
[7] Sirtrack Ltd. 120 Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) Yes No 0.3–0.5 916.5 MHz No No (recapture necessary) Laboratory test to assess threshold contact distance
Field test on captive Tasmanian devils to assess contact distance, using video camera as ground truth
No
[8] Sirtrack Ltd. Not reported White tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Yes No 0–1.0 916.5 MHz No No (recapture necessary) Field test on captive white tailed deer to compare observed and recorded contacts
Contacts reciprocity assessed
No
[9] CraneTracker ~100 Whooping crane (Grus americana) Yes (only for data retrieving) Yes (base stations) Not reported 2.4 GHz No
A GPS is embedded in the logger to track long-range migratory movements
Yes
Via radio between mobile loggers and base stations placed at wintering and breeding sites; via GSM modem during migration phase
Field test on wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and on crane species other than Grus americana, to evaluate logger functioning prior to deployment on target species Yes
[10] Sirtrack Ltd. Not reported Eurasian badger (Meles meles)/domestic cattle (Bos taurus) Yes Yes 0.5–2 916.5 MHz No No (recapture necessary) Laboratory test to evaluate (1) inter-logger distances at different heights and combinations; (2) contacts reciprocity; (3) contacts duration
Field test on cattle to compare observed and recorded contacts
No
[11] Encounternet 1 Long-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia linearis) Yes Yes 5–30 433 MHz No Yes
Via radio between mobile loggers and base stations, then via radio to a PC by means of a masternode
Field test to evaluate (1) RSSI/distance relationship; (2) duration and robustness of contacts; (3) effect of antenna orientation on connectivity; (4) effect of movement on connectivity (simulation) No
[12] Encounternet 10 New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides) Yes Yes (base stations) 20–40 for mobile loggers
100 for static loggers
433 MHz Yes
Via cross-triangulation between base stations and mobile loggers. RSSI values used to estimate inter-logger distance
Yes
Via radio between mobile loggers and base stations, then via radio to a PC by means of a masternode
Field test on a fixed network made up of dead quails, to model the probabilistic relationship between RSSI and distance in function of height from ground, antenna orientation, habitat type. Details of calibration model are provided in [13, 14] No
[15] Sirtrack Ltd. Not reported Cattle (Bos taurus) Yes Yes (base stations) 2.0–3.5 916.5 MHz No No (recapture necessary) Laboratory test to assess inter-logger distance (mobile–base station)
Field test on dairy cows to measure loggers reciprocity in measuring contact duration
No
[16] Encounternet 65–70 Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) Yes Yes (base stations) 10 433 MHz No Yes
Via radio between mobile loggers and base stations, then via radio to a PC by means of a masternode
Laboratory test to assess (1) RSSI/distance relationship; (2) effect of antenna orientation on connectivity; (3) duration and robustness of contacts
Field test (1) to measure loggers reciprocity; (2) to compare observed and recorded contacts; (3) to assess RSSI/distance relationship in outdoor conditions
No
[17] Bat Monitoring Project 30–50 Flying fox family (Pteropodidae) Yes Yes (base stations) Not reported < 1 GHz No
A GPS is embedded in the logger to track bats movements
Yes
Via radio between mobile loggers and base stations, then via GSM modem to the central database
Not reported Yes
[18] Encounternet 1.3 Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) Yes Yes (base stations) 0–40 for mobile loggers
100 for static loggers
433 MHz No Yes
Via radio between mobile loggers and base stations, then via radio to a PC by means of a masternode
Field tests to evaluate (1) body effect, antenna orientation and environment effect on RSSI/distance relationship; (2) inter-logger variability; (3) contacts reciprocity No
[19] WildScope 440 Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)/domestic horse (Equus caballus) Yes Yes 5–30 2.4 GHz Yes
A GPS is triggered in case of contact between proximity loggers
Yes
Via GSM modem from mobile loggers to the central database
Field test ‘in vitro’ to evaluate effect of height from ground, casing and radio power on contact distance
Field test on horses to compare observed versus recorded contacts in relation to distance and radio power
Field test on roe deer to evaluate functioning of contact-triggered GPS acquisition in case of contact
Yes
[20] BATS 2 Mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) Yes Yes (base stations) 50 868 MHz Yes
Via cross-triangulation between base stations and mobile loggers. RSSI values used to estimate inter-logger distance
Yes
Via radio between mobile loggers and base stations
Not reported Yes
[21] BATS 2 Fringe-lipped bat (Trachops cirrhosis) Yes Yes (base stations) 10 868 MHz No Yes
Via radio between mobile loggers and base stations
Field test ‘in vitro’ to model relationship RSSI/distance, also in function of antenna orientation
Field test ‘in vivo’ on mouse-eared bats to link RSSI variation to individual movement, using video camera as ground truth
No
  1. The table collects information on some of the most well-known proximity logger deployments. Details on target species, proximity logging features, calibration attempts and geo-referencing functionalities are provided
  2. aWe report the detection range of interest for the specific study, which does not necessarily pair the maximum distance potentially covered by the loggers of any given brand